CHAPTER 1:INSTALLATION OVERVIEW
1.1 . . . . Overview
1.1.1 . . . . . . Initial Tasks
1.1.2 . . . . . . As-needed Tasks
1.2 . . . . Requirements
1.2.1 . . . . . . Login Identity
1.2.2 . . . . . . Recommended Reading
1.2.3 . . . . . . General Requirements
1.2.4 . . . . . . File Server Machine Requirements
1.2.5 . . . . . . Client Machine Requirements
1.3 . . . . Supported System Types
1.3.1 . . . . . . About Upgrading to a New Operating System
1.4 . . . . The AFS Binary Distribution
1.4.1 . . . . . . The Contents of the Binary Distribution Tape
1.4.2 . . . . . . Unloading Files from the Binary Distribution Tape
1.5 . . . . How to Continue
1.1 INSTALLATION OVERVIEW
This chapter describes pre-installation requirements for AFS , lists the system
types supported by the current version, and explains how to unload the contents
of the Binary Distribution Tape.
Before beginning the installation of your cell's first machine, you should read
this chapter, particularly the material listed in Section 1.2.2, and the
relevant sections in Chapter 2. Similarly, you should read through the
appropriate chapters in this guide before installing additional file server or
client machines. If you are unfamiliar with basic AFS concepts, read Chapter 1
of the AFS System Administrator's Guide, "An Overview of AFS for the System
Administrator," before proceeding.
If you are already running a version of AFS, contact Transarc Corporation before
proceeding with the installation.
The information in this guide describes procedures for two types of installation
tasks: initial tasks (such as installing the first AFS machine, or incorporating
AFS into a kernel) and as-needed tasks (such as installing additional AFS file
server machines or client machines).
1.1.1. INITIAL TASKS
Incorporating AFS Into the Kernel
AFS must be incorporated into the kernel of all AFS file server and client
machines, either using a dynamic kernel loader or during a kernel build.
Chapter 2, Chapter 3, and Chapter 4 include instructions for incorporating AFS
into the kernel on the different types of machines you will install.
Chapter 5 provides more detailed instructions to be used for reference.
Installing the First AFS Machine
The first AFS machine will be installed as both an AFS file server and client.
First, you will incorporate AFS into the kernel and then will install the AFS
file server software.
As the first file server in your cell, this machine will take several "roles,"
- system control machine, distributing certain configuration files to other
file servers in the cell (if you use the United States edition of AFS).
- binary distribution machine for its system type, distributing AFS binaries to
other file servers of its system type.
- database server machine, running the server processes that maintain the AFS
After you install file server functionality, you will install AFS client
functionality and complete other tasks specific to the first machine, including
setting up the top levels of your cell's AFS tree.
1.1.2. AS-NEEDED TASKS
Upgrading to a New Operating System
Upgrading to a new operating system (for which AFS is supported) requires you to
take several steps to protect data and AFS-modified binaries from being lost or
overwritten. See Section 1.3.1 for guidelines.
Installing Additional AFS File Server Machines
To install additional file servers, follow the procedures in Chapter 3. This
chapter also provides instructions for adding and removing database server
functionality from file server machines.
Installing Additional AFS Client Machines
To install additional client machines, follow the procedures in Chapter 4.
To incorporate AFS during a kernel build, see Chapter 5.
To install package files to be used to automate configuration of the local disk
on client machines, see Chapter 6.
To build AFS from source, see Chapter 7.
The installation instructions assume that you have met the following
1.2.1. LOGIN IDENTITY
All procedures assume that you are logged in as "root" on the system on which
you are installing AFS or building the kernel.
1.2.2. RECOMMENDED READING
It is suggested that you read the entire chapter or section that describes an
installation task before performing that task (for example, read all of Chapter
2 before installing the first machine in your cell).
In addition, you will be more efficient if you are familiar with some general
AFS concepts, because you will understand better why you are performing a given
step. The following is a prioritized list of the sections you should read
before installing an AFS system. At minimum, read Chapter 1 of the AFS System
Administrator's Guide. Then continue your reading in the indicated order, as
extensively as you can.
Selected Topics in the AFS System Administrator's Guide
- Overview (All of Chapter 1)
- Command Syntax (vi - xii)
- File Server Machine Processes and Files (Chapter 3)
- Controlling and Checking Process Status (Section 4.2)
- CellServDB on File Server Machines (Section 9.2)
- Encryption Keys (Section 10.2)
- Volumes (Sections 5.2 - 5.4)
- Mount Points (Section 5.7)
- Cache Manager (Sections 13.2 - 13.4)
- Access Control Lists (Section 19.2)
Selected Topics in the AFS User's Guide
- Concepts (All of Chapter 1)
More Selected Topics in the AFS System Administrator's Guide
- Backup System (Section 6.2)
- Backup Volumes (Section 5.6)
- ReadOnly Volumes (Section 5.5)
- Protection Groups (Section 18.2)
- Components of a User Account (Section 17.2)
- Uss (Section 16.2)
- Privileged Users/Accounts (Section 20.2)
1.2.3. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
- You must have a separate AFS Binary Distribution Tape for each different
system type you will install. Unless otherwise noted, the Binary Distribution
includes software for both client and file server machines of a given system
- The machines in the AFS cell must be able to access each other through the
- A tape reading facility (drive) must be operational on at least one file
server or client machine.
- The installer must have root access to the machines that will be in the AFS
cell. All installation procedures must be performed by "root."
- The installer should be familiar with the existing configuration of potential
AFS machines. The System Administrator (or person responsible for cell
configuration and administration) should assist in the installation.
- The hardware and software of all potential file server and client machines
must be functioning normally.
- All potential AFS file server and client machines must be running a standard
vendor-supplied version of UNIX. The root partition with the UNIX operating
system must already be installed.
- Since the installation procedure requires you to reboot the machine
frequently, you should ask other users to avoid using the machine during
1.2.4. FILE SERVER MACHINE REQUIREMENTS
- The first machine you install should, if possible, have the lowest IP address
of any file server machine you currently plan to install, because you will make
it your cell's first database server machine. As explained in more detail in
the introduction to Section 3.2, if you later install database server
functionality on a machine with a lower Internet address, you must update the
/usr/vice/etc/CellServDB file on all of your cell's client machines before the
- Each file server machine must have a /usr partition with about 18 megabytes
of disk space available for AFS file server machine binaries (stored in
/usr/afs/bin). The complete set of AFS binaries requires more space, as
indicated in the chart in Step 4 in Section 2.31, but they are normally stored
in an AFS volume rather than on a machine's local disk.
- Each file server machine that uses the dkload dynamic kernel loader must have
one megabyte of free disk space in /tmp for temporary files created as dkload
- Each file server machine must have at least one partition dedicated
exclusively to storing AFS volumes. AFS volumes contain user files plus client
binaries for each system type. The total number and size of AFS file server
partitions (distributed on file servers throughout the cell) determines how much
space is available for AFS files.
1.2.5. CLIENT MACHINE REQUIREMENTS
- Each client machine that uses disk caching must have a /usr partition with at
least 5 megabytes of free disk space for the AFS cache, though caches of at
least 10 megabytes perform better. Client machines using memory caching should
be able to devote 5 megabytes of memory to the cache. The sections on setting
up the cache in Chapter 2 and Chapter 4 further discuss cache size.
- Each client machine that uses the dkload dynamic kernel loader must have one
megabyte of free disk space in /tmp for temporary files created as dkload runs.
1.3. SUPPORTED SYSTEM TYPES
Transarc currently supports AFS on the following system types. This list is
subject to change, and some models in a series may not be supported; contact
your AFS Sales Representative for details.
System name CPU and operating system type
alpha_osf20 DEC AXP system running Digital UNIX (formerly DEC OSF/1), version
alpha_osf30 DEC AXP system running Digital UNIX (formerly DEC OSF/1), version
alpha_osf32 DEC AXP system running Digital UNIX (formerly DEC OSF/1), version
hp700_ux90 Hewlett-Packard 9000 Series 700 running HP-UX 9.0
hp800_ux90 Hewlett-Packard 9000 Series 800 running HP-UX 9.0
ncrx86_30 AT&T/NCR System 3000 running NCR UNIX 3.0
pmax_ul43 DEC DECstation (MIPS, single processor only) running Ultrix 4.3
pmax_ul43a DEC DECstation (MIPS, single processor only) running Ultrix 4.3a
rs_aix32 IBM RS/6000 running AIX 3.2
rs_aix41 IBM RS/6000 running AIX 4.1
sgi_52 Silicon Graphics system running IRIX 5.2
sgi_53 Silicon Graphics system running IRIX 5.3
sun4_411 Sun 4 (except SPARCstation) running SunOS 4.1.1, 4.1.2, or 4.1.3
sun4_53 Sun 4 (except SPARCstation) running Solaris 2.3
sun4_54 Sun 4 (except SPARCstation) running Solaris 2.4
sun4c_411 Sun SPARCstation IPC (and other models with kernel architecture
"sun4c") running SunOS 4.1.1, 4.1.2, or 4.1.3
sun4c_53 Sun SPARCstation IPC (and other models with kernel architecture
"sun4c") running Solaris 2.3
sun4c_54 Sun SPARCstation IPC (and other models with kernel architecture
"sun4c") running Solaris 2.4
sun4m_412 Sun SPARCstation 5, 10, 20 and SPARCclassic (and other
models with kernel architecture "sun4m") running SunOS
4.1.2 or 4.1.3
sun4m_53 Sun SPARCstation 5, 10, 20 and SPARCclassic (and other
models with kernel architecture "sun4m") running Solaris 2.3
sun4m_54 Sun SPARCstation 5, 10, 20 and SPARCclassic (and other
models with kernel architecture "sun4m") running Solaris 2.4
1.3.1. ABOUT UPGRADING TO A NEW OPERATING SYSTEM
As the chart in Section 1.3 indicates, sites upgrading to AFS 3.4 from previous
AFS versions must also upgrade the operating system on some system types (for
example, SGI machines to IRIX 5.2 or 5.3).
Whenever you upgrade an AFS machine to a new operating system version, you must
take several actions to maintain proper AFS functionality. These actions
include (but may not be limited to):
- unmounting the /vicepx partitions on all file server machines, to prevent the
vendor-supplied fsck program from running on them when you reboot the machine
during installation of the new operating system. Before upgrading the operating
system, you may need to comment out commands in the machine's initialization
file that remount the /vicepx partitions, to make sure that the partitions are
not remounted until you can replace standard fsck with the AFS version.
Instructions for replacing fsck on each system type appear in Sections 2.4
- protecting the AFS-modified versions of several commands from being
overwritten by vendor-supplied versions, including login, vfsck (the AFS version
of fsck), and the "remote" commands described in the "Modified UNIX Commands"
chapter of the AFS Command Reference Manual (rsh, inetd, etc.). After you have
successfully installed the operating system, remember to move the AFS-modified
commands back to the locations where they will be accessed during normal
1.4. THE AFS BINARY DISTRIBUTION
The AFS Binary Distribution is available on several types of magnetic tape. The
tape divides the files you will need into six tar sets. Section 1.4.2 provides
preliminary instructions for unloading files onto the local disk before
beginning the installation proper. Follow the instructions appropriate for your
machine configuration before continuing to other chapters.
If you are installing AFS onto machines of different system types, you need a
different tape for each system type.
If you have an AFS Source Distribution Tape, implying you have a source
license you may build AFS from source for those system types for which you have
also purchased binaries. For instructions, see Chapter 7. Sites with source
licenses may also receive a Binary Distribution Tape for each purchased system
1.4.1. THE CONTENTS OF THE BINARY DISTRIBUTION TAPE
The AFS Binary Distribution Tape contains the following tar sets in the order
1. the first tar set contains the files necessary for running the dynamic kernel
loader for this system type. The files from this set must reside on the local
disk of any AFS machine where you wish to run a dynamic kernel loader. The name
of the set differs for various system types:
- sgiload on SGI systems
- modload on Solaris and SunOS machines (for SunOS, there is also a dkload
- dkload on any other system type that uses a dynamic kernel loader
If a dynamic loader is not available for the system type, this set is empty.
2. /usr/afs/sys contains files necessary to build a kernel that incorporates AFS
modifications. If kernel building is not possible for the system type, this set
3. /usr/afs contains the file server process binaries. These files must reside
on the local disk of AFS file server machines.
4. /usr/vice/etc contains the Cache Manager initialization program (afsd), Cache
Manager configuration files, and files necessary for running a dynamic kernel
loader. These files must reside on the local disk of AFS client machines.
5. /usr/afsws includes second copies of all files listed above in the other tar
sets (dkload, /usr/afs/sys, /usr/afs, and /usr/vice/etc), in addition to user
command binaries, system administrator command binaries, AFS include and library
files for programming, and online man pages for AFS command suites. This set is
divided into the following subdirectories:
- bin - AFS user command binaries for use on client machines
- etc - AFS system administrator command binaries for use on client machines
- include - AFS include files for programming on top of AFS
- lib - AFS library files for programming on top of AFS
- root.client - files necessary for building kernels that incorporate AFS
modifications, for running a kernel dynamic loader, and for running the Cache
Manager on client machines
- root.server - files necessary for building kernels that incorporate AFS
modifications, and for running a file server machine
6. wsadmin contains configuration files used by the package program.
1.4.2. UNLOADING FILES FROM THE BINARY DISTRIBUTION TAPE
There are two ways to extract files from the AFS Binary Distribution Tape
available for all supported systems:
- onto the local machine (where you are performing the installation), if it has
a tape drive attached. See Section 126.96.36.199 for preliminary instructions.
- onto a remote machine with a tape drive attached. You then copy the needed
files to the local machine's disk using ftp, NFS, or another network transfer
method. See Section 188.8.131.52 for preliminary instructions.
184.108.40.206. LOADING FILES USING A LOCAL TAPE DRIVE
If the machine that you are installing has a tape drive attached, you can unload
files directly from the Binary Distribution Tape onto the local disk.
You do not need to take any action at this point. When later chapters in this
guide indicate a need to load files onto the local disk, follow the instructions
for using a local tape drive; they will tell you which tar set to unload.
220.127.116.11. LOADING FILES USING THE TAPE DRIVE ON A REMOTE MACHINE
If the machine onto which you are installing AFS does not have a tape drive, you
must load the files from the Binary Distribution Tape's fifth tar set into the
/usr/afsws directory on a remote machine that has a tape drive. Later
instructions in this guide will have you copy files from the remote machine's
/usr/afsws directory onto the local disk of the machine you are installing,
using ftp, NFS or another file transfer method.
Perform the following steps now, before continuing to the remainder of this
guide. When later chapters indicate a need to load files to the local disk,
follow the instructions for unloading from a remote machine.
Step 1: Working on the remote machine, create the /usr/afsws directory.
| # mkdir /usr/afsws |
Step 2: Working on the remote machine, mount the Binary Distribution Tape
and load the fifth tar set into /usr/afsws.
| On AIX systems: Before reading the tape, verify that block size is set to 0 |
| (meaning variable block size); if necessary, use SMIT to set block size to 0. |
| Also, substitute tctl for mt. |
| On HP-UX systems: Substitute mt -t for mt -f. |
| On all system types: For , substitute the name of the tape device for |
| your system that does not rewind after each operation. |
| # cd /usr/afsws |
| # mt -f /dev/ rewind |
| # mt -f /dev/ fsf 4 |
| # tar xvf /dev/ |
1.5. HOW TO CONTINUE
If you are installing the first AFS machine in your cell, proceed now to
Chapter 2. The instructions there make the first machine both a file server
and a client.
If you are installing an additional file server machine or installing/removing
database server machine functionality, proceed to Chapter 3.
If you are are installing an additional client machine, proceed to Chapter 4.